Bioterrorism - Wikipedia

Posted by 2018 article


Over 2,500 species of fleas have been described worldwide. The Siphonaptera are most closely related to the snow scorpionflies ( Boreidae ), placing them within the endopterygote insect order Mecoptera .

Fleas appear in human culture in such diverse forms as flea circuses , poems like John Donne 's erotic The Flea , works of music such as by Modest Mussorgsky , and a film by Charlie Chaplin .

Fleas are wingless insects, 1/16 to 1/8-inch (1.5 to 3.3 mm) long, that are agile, usually dark colored (for example, the reddish-brown of the cat flea), with a proboscis , or stylet, adapted to feeding by piercing the skin and sucking their host's blood through their epipharynx. Flea legs end in strong claws that are designed to grasp a host. [1]

Copyright .  This text is the copyrighted property of the author.  Certain forms of copying are permitted and even encouraged; see the Copyright section for details.
 

Relatively uncontentious assertions appear as normal text.  Potentially contentious assertions appear like this . Denials of widely-held beliefs appear like this . Questions whose answers lie outside human knowledge appear like this.

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During the Great Depression, Hans Zinsser, a bacteriologist and historian wrote that "Infectious Disease is one of the few genuine adventures left in the world."

"Infectious Disease is one of the great tragedies of living things - the struggle for existence between different forms of life . Incessantly the pitiless war goes on, without quarter or armistice - a nationalism of species against species." Hans Zinsser- Rats, Lice and History (1934)

The intentional use of living organisms or infected materials derived from them has occurred over centuries during war and "peace" time by armies, states, groups and individuals (14,15,16). One of the first recorded uses of a biological agent in the war was in 184 BC. The Carthaginian soldiers led by Hannibal used snakes in the battle against King Eumenes of Perganium and achieved a victory (17,18). As early as 300 BC, the Greeks polluted the wells and drinking water supplies of their enemies with animal corpses. The use of catapults and siege machines introduced new technology to biological warfare. Some of the more recent events of biological warfare are chronicled below -

What is plague?
Plague is a disease caused by Yersinia pestis ( Y. pestis ), a bacterium found in rodents and their fleas in many areas around the world.

What are the signs and symptoms of pneumonic plague?
Patients usually have fever, weakness, and rapidly developing pneumonia with shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, and sometimes bloody or watery sputum. Nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain may also occur. Without early treatment, pneumonic plague usually leads to respiratory failure, shock, and rapid death.

Does plague occur naturally?
Yes. The World Health Organization reports 1,000 to 3,000 cases of plague worldwide every year. An average of 5 to 15 cases occur each year in the western United States. These cases are usually scattered and occur in rural to semi-rural areas. Most cases are of the bubonic form of the disease. Naturally occurring pneumonic plague is uncommon, although small outbreaks do occur. Both types of plague are readily controlled by standard public health response measures.

Over 2,500 species of fleas have been described worldwide. The Siphonaptera are most closely related to the snow scorpionflies ( Boreidae ), placing them within the endopterygote insect order Mecoptera .

Fleas appear in human culture in such diverse forms as flea circuses , poems like John Donne 's erotic The Flea , works of music such as by Modest Mussorgsky , and a film by Charlie Chaplin .

Fleas are wingless insects, 1/16 to 1/8-inch (1.5 to 3.3 mm) long, that are agile, usually dark colored (for example, the reddish-brown of the cat flea), with a proboscis , or stylet, adapted to feeding by piercing the skin and sucking their host's blood through their epipharynx. Flea legs end in strong claws that are designed to grasp a host. [1]

Copyright .  This text is the copyrighted property of the author.  Certain forms of copying are permitted and even encouraged; see the Copyright section for details.
 

Relatively uncontentious assertions appear as normal text.  Potentially contentious assertions appear like this . Denials of widely-held beliefs appear like this . Questions whose answers lie outside human knowledge appear like this.

Arrangements .  The text places various unoriginal pieces of information into some arrangements that might not have been presented elsewhere before. Among these are

During the Great Depression, Hans Zinsser, a bacteriologist and historian wrote that "Infectious Disease is one of the few genuine adventures left in the world."

"Infectious Disease is one of the great tragedies of living things - the struggle for existence between different forms of life . Incessantly the pitiless war goes on, without quarter or armistice - a nationalism of species against species." Hans Zinsser- Rats, Lice and History (1934)

The intentional use of living organisms or infected materials derived from them has occurred over centuries during war and "peace" time by armies, states, groups and individuals (14,15,16). One of the first recorded uses of a biological agent in the war was in 184 BC. The Carthaginian soldiers led by Hannibal used snakes in the battle against King Eumenes of Perganium and achieved a victory (17,18). As early as 300 BC, the Greeks polluted the wells and drinking water supplies of their enemies with animal corpses. The use of catapults and siege machines introduced new technology to biological warfare. Some of the more recent events of biological warfare are chronicled below -

Over 2,500 species of fleas have been described worldwide. The Siphonaptera are most closely related to the snow scorpionflies ( Boreidae ), placing them within the endopterygote insect order Mecoptera .

Fleas appear in human culture in such diverse forms as flea circuses , poems like John Donne 's erotic The Flea , works of music such as by Modest Mussorgsky , and a film by Charlie Chaplin .

Fleas are wingless insects, 1/16 to 1/8-inch (1.5 to 3.3 mm) long, that are agile, usually dark colored (for example, the reddish-brown of the cat flea), with a proboscis , or stylet, adapted to feeding by piercing the skin and sucking their host's blood through their epipharynx. Flea legs end in strong claws that are designed to grasp a host. [1]

Copyright .  This text is the copyrighted property of the author.  Certain forms of copying are permitted and even encouraged; see the Copyright section for details.
 

Relatively uncontentious assertions appear as normal text.  Potentially contentious assertions appear like this . Denials of widely-held beliefs appear like this . Questions whose answers lie outside human knowledge appear like this.

Arrangements .  The text places various unoriginal pieces of information into some arrangements that might not have been presented elsewhere before. Among these are

Over 2,500 species of fleas have been described worldwide. The Siphonaptera are most closely related to the snow scorpionflies ( Boreidae ), placing them within the endopterygote insect order Mecoptera .

Fleas appear in human culture in such diverse forms as flea circuses , poems like John Donne 's erotic The Flea , works of music such as by Modest Mussorgsky , and a film by Charlie Chaplin .

Fleas are wingless insects, 1/16 to 1/8-inch (1.5 to 3.3 mm) long, that are agile, usually dark colored (for example, the reddish-brown of the cat flea), with a proboscis , or stylet, adapted to feeding by piercing the skin and sucking their host's blood through their epipharynx. Flea legs end in strong claws that are designed to grasp a host. [1]



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Posted by 2018 Plague: from natural disease to bioterrorism

CDC | Bioterrorism

Posted by 2018 article

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